Sunday, May 29, 2011

TYPE nasal polyps

TYPE nasal polyps

Nasal polyps are divided into 2 types, namely:

Single nasal polyps. The number of polyps is only a. Derived from cells of the sinus wall surface cheekbone (maxillary).
Multiple nasal polyps. The number of polyps more than one. Can arise on both sides of the nasal cavity. In general, derived from the bone cavity wall surface of the upper nasal (etmoid).

CAUSE nasal polyps

The cause of nasal polyps is not known with certainty. But there are 3 factors that play a role in the occurrence of polyps rice, namely:

1. Inflammation. Inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinus mucosa of chronic and recurrent.
2. Vasomotor. Impaired vasomotor balance.
3. Edema. Increased interstitial fluid pressure causing edema of the nasal mucosa. This edema can be explained by the Bernoulli phenomenon.

Bernoulli phenomenon in question is air that flows through narrow places will cause negative pressure on the surrounding area so that the network of weak ties will be sucked by the negative pressure. As a result there arose a mucosal edema. This situation continued until there was a nasal polyp. There is also a variation called nasal polyps koana polyps (polyps koana antrum).

Nasal polyps nasal polyps usually grow in areas where the mucous membrane to swell due to fluid retention, such as the area around the hole in the nasal sinuses.

Polyps originating from swelling of the nasal mucosa consisting of intercellular fluid and then pushed into the nasal cavity and gravity. Polyps can arise from the nasal mucosa or paranasal sinuses and are often bilateral. Nasal polyps most often derived from the maxillary sinus (antrum) to exit through the sinus ostium and into ronga maksilla nose and enlarged in koana and nasopharing. Polyps are called polyps koana. The macroscopic polyps as a soft mass, white or grayish. While a microscopic look submucosal hypertrophy and swollen. Cells do not grow much and mainly consist of eosinophil cells, lymphocytes and plasma cells while located far apart separated by the intercellular fluid. Blood vessels, nerves and glands are very few in the polyp epithelium and lined by pseudo-coated throrak.

The mechanism of pathogenesis which is responsible for the growth of nasal polyps difficult to determine. The factors that could affect the formation of polyps, among others:

The inflammatory process caused by multifactorial causes, including familiar and hereditary factors
Activation of local immune response
Hyperactivity of the parasympathetic innervation.

All types of immunoglobulin can be found in the polyps of rice, but the increase in IgE is the highest type was found even when compared with tonsils and serum though. Levels of IgG, IgA, IgM present in varying amounts, which increased the number shows the presence of infection in the respiratory tract.

Several inflammatory mediators can also be found in the polyps. Histamine is a mediator of the largest concentration in the serum concentrations of stromal polyps 100-1000. Other chemical mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps is a Gamma Interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor growth factor β (TGF-β). IFN-γ causes the migration and activation of eosinophils through the release of toxic responsible for epithelial damage and collagen synthesis by fibroblasts. TGF-β is generally not found in normal mucosa is the most powerful factor in attracting fibroblasts and stimulate extracellular matrix synthesis. Increase in these mediators will ultimately damage the mucosa rinosinusal which will lead to increased permeability of sodium thus trigger the occurrence of submucosal edema on rice polyps.

Nasal polyp is a benign growth of cells in the nasal mucous membranes. Possible reasons are hypersensitive or allergic reactions in the nasal mucosa.

Patients usually complain of nasal congestion, decreased sense of smell, and respiratory disorders. As a result, people with nasal voice.

The main goal of treatment is overcome polyps and avoid the causes or drivers of polyps. Operations performed if polyps disrupt breathing or associated with tumors.

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