Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Circulatory system cardiovascular system / blood circulation
The heart is the beginning of the cardiovascular system.

The purpose of the cardiovascular system is to take oxygen in the lungs and nutrients are absorbed from the intestine to be distributed to all body cells. At the same time the cardiovascular system transports metabolic waste products generated by each cell to be excreted through the lungs or kidneys.

TThe heart is a muscular organ with four chambers located in the chest cavity between the lungs, under the protection of the ribs, slightly to the left of the sternum.

The heart is wrapped by a pericardium membrane. Membrane perikadium consist of 3 layers of the fibrous pericardium is the outermost layer of the pericardium and the parietal and visceral pericardium (epikardium). Among the parietal and visceral pericardium contained serous fluid that prevents friction when the heart beats.

Composed heart wall of three layers

a. Outside Epikardium

b. Myocardium was composed of cardiac muscle tissue which contracts to pump blood

c. Endokardium in composed of endothelial layer located over connective tissue.

The four heart chamber that is left and right atrium and left ventricle and right. Atrium is located above the ventricles and adjacent to each other.

Atria and ventricles are separated by one-way valve. Left and right side of the heart are separated by a wall of tissue called the septum.

The fourth wall of the heart chamber is composed of cardiac muscle called the myocardium

Valve that separates the left atrium and left ventricle is the valves mitralis (bikuspidalis), while only between the right atrium that connects the right ventricle is the valves and semilunaris (trikuspidalis).
PHYSIOLOGY
The main function of the heart is pumping blood through arteries, capillaries and veins.
Circulatory system cardiovascular system / blood circulation

The left side of the heart pumps blood throughout the body's cells called the systemic circulation. While the right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs to get oxygen is called pulmonary circulation

Systemic circulation
Blood into the left atrium from the venous pulmonaris. Blood flow in the left atrium into the left ventricle through atrioventrikel valve (AV), which is located in the atrium and ventricle connection (valve mitralis). Blood from the left ventricle leading to large muscular artery called the aorta through the aortic valve. Blood in the aorta forwarded to the systemic circulation through the arteries, arterioles and capillaries which then merge again to form veins.

The veins of the lower body venous return blood to the largest, the inferior vena cava, while the upper body venous return blood to the superior vena cava. Both vein empties into the right atrium.

All heart valve opens when pressure within the heart chamber or vessel that was on it exceeds the pressure in the chamber or vessel which is below.
Pulmonary Circulation

Blood flow in the right atrium to right ventricle through the other AV valve, valve semilunaris. From the right vetikel flow through the valve into the artery pulmonaris pulmonaris. Pulmonaris artery branches into the arteries pulmonaris left and right, each of which flows into the left lung and right. In the lung arteries pulmonaris becabang - branch many times into ateriol then capillaries. Each capillary provides perfusion to the respiratory unit through an alveolus. All capillary fused back into venules, then veins. Veins fuse to form large pulmonaris vein and back into the left atrium.
Hepatic portal circulation

Hepatic portal circulation is a sub part of the systemic circulation. Blood from digestive organs in the abdomen and lymph will circulate through the liver before returning to the heart.

Capillary blood from the stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas of lymph flow into large duavena, the superior mesenteric vein and the vein splenika which later joined to form the portal vein. Portal vein carries blood into the liver. Here, much branched blood flow and blood flow into the sinusoids, then the blood flow to the vena hepatica towards the inferior vena cava and right atrium
Exchange of substances occurs in the capillary
Coronary blood vessels / circulation that supply the walls of coronary heart

Right and left coronary artery is a branch tops ascending aorta, just behind the aortic valve. Both these arteries branch into small arteries and arterioles and capillaries. Coronary capillaries unite to form the coronary vein into the coronary sinus and back into the right atrium

The function of the coronary arteries are supplying blood to the myocardium because oxygen is essential for normal myocardial contraction.

Cardiac veins, drain the blood from the myocardium into the coronary sinus, which then empties into the right Arium.

Blood flow through the coronary arteries, especially when the heart muscles relax due to coronary artery was also depressed at the time of the contraction lasts.
Cardiac cycle

Cardiac cycle is a series of events in one cardiac rhythm. A heart rhythm starting to flow from the venous blood into the atrium. Atrium will contract followed by relaxation and ventricular contraction and relaxation started simultaneously with the blood flowing back into the atrium and the cycle begins again.
Systole is the term for contraction and diastole for relaxation
Heart sound

Cardiac cycle produces a sound heart. Each heartbeat produces two sounds "lubdub". The sound of the first and longest AV valve closure caused by ventricular systole. The sound of the two caused by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valve semilunaris. If there is a valve that does not close completely will hear a noisy addition to the so-called heart.
Cardiac conduction path

Heart muscle cells to contract itself because the cells underwent spontaneous depolarization, ie, they become positively charged on the inside than the outside of the cell. Cell membrane depolarization occurs because the heart at a resting state is permeable to sodium ions which leak-on in the cell dn carry a positive charge. As the influx of sodium ions has led to depolarization of cells until a certain threshold, then the voltage sensitive sodium channels in every open-heart cells. This causes sodium ions into the cell and formed the action potential because the membrane potential of each cell quickly became positive on the inside than the outside.
Natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node (SA) is a specialized group of cardiac muscle cells located in the right atrial wall. SA node is considered special because it has the most rapid contraction frequency, so as to depolarization more epat than the myocardium.
From the SA node, the impulse for contraction is brought into the atrioventricular node (AV) located in the interatrial septum.
File His (AV file) in the septum intrventrikular upon receiving impulses from the AV node and delivers to the right and left bundle branch.
From the branch file, the impulse is carried along the Purkinje fibers into the ventricular myocardium at rest and generate ventricular systole.
Heart frequency

Healthy adults have a resting heart frequency (pulse) 60-80 times per minute, according to the SA node depolarization velocity
Cardiac output

Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one minute

Volume sekuncup is a term to indicate the amount of blood pumped per beat ventricle. The average volume istirahata sekuncup dalah 60-80 ml per pulse.
Cardiac output = volume sekuncup x pulse (heart rate)

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. The further blood flow from the heart, the lower the pressure.

Normal systole ranged between 90-135 mm Hg and normal diastolic between 60-85 mm Hg
Factors that affect blood pressure
Cardiac output, blood pressure is directly proportional to cardiac output
Peripheral pressure on blood flow, blood pressure is inversely proportional to the resistance in the vessels. Prisoners affected by viscosity, length and radus pemulh vessels.
D A R A H
Characteristic
Blood is a kind of connective tissue cells are suspended and carried in a fluid matrix (plasma)
Blood is heavier than water and more viscous. It has a distinctive taste and odor, and pH 7.4
Color varies from bright red blood to dark bluish-red, depending on the level of oxygen carried red blood cells
Total blood volume of 5 liters in the adult male average and slightly less in adult women
Blood type and blood type

Before birth, the molecules are genetically determined proteins called antigens appear on the surface of red blood cell membrane antigen has type A and type B antibodies react with their partner, which began to appear about 2 to 8 months after birth.

Reaction of antigens and antibodies cause agglutination (clumping) of red blood cells, the antigen and antibody called aglutinogen called agglutinin.
Classification of ABO blood group
Ø Blood group A contains aglutinogen A and type B aglutinin
Ø Blood group B contains aglutinin aglutinogen B and type A
Ø Blood group AB contain aglutinogen A and B, but does not contain A and B aglutinin
Ø Blood type O does not contain aglutinogen A and B, but A and B contain aglutinin
Classification of blood

1. If the serum anti-A causes agglutination of blood drops, then the individual has aglutinogen A (blood group A)

2. If the serum anti-B cause agglutination in the blood drops, then the individual has aglutinogen B (blood type B)

3. If both serum anti-A and B cause agglutination, the individual has aglutinogen A and B (blood type AB)

4. If both serum anti-A and B did not cause agglutination, then the individual does not have aglutinogen (blood type O).





Related Terms
Heart: a cavity, cavity, muscular organ that pumps blood through blood vessels by repetitive rhythmic contractions.
Cardiovascular: circulatory system or cardiovascular system is a system of organs that function to move substances into and from cells
Sternum: Bones
pericardium membrane: sakus fibroserosa that surrounds the heart and major blood vessels root
parietal pericardium: a folded fibrus layer out of the base ¬ jan heart and heart wrapped as a loose bag
visceral pericardium (epikardium): membrane serus once attached to the heart
Myocardium: heart muscle
Endokardium: limits in the heart

Atrium: a room that provides access to other structures or organs, especially the upper cavity, smaller on one side of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins or vena cava and took him from the ventricle on the same side

10. Ventricle: the chamber bottom on the right side of the heart, pumping blood through a vein into the pulmonary artery trunk and pulmonary capillary

11. Septum: a wall or partition

12. Myocardium: the middle layer and the thickness of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle

13. mitralis valve (bikuspidalis): valve regulates the flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

14. semilunaris valve (trikuspidalis): valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle

15. arteries: blood vessels where blood flows out of the heart, the systemic circulation carrying oxygenated blood.

16. Capillaries: fine vessel that connects atriol and venul, the walls act as a semi-permeable membrane for the exchange of substances between blood and tissue fluid

17. Veins: vessels that carry blood to the heart of the whole body

18. systemic circulation: the circulation associated with the overall body

19. sirklasi lung: circulation-related lung

20. pulmonary veins: The valve is located at the junction where the large arteries out of the ventricle

21. atrioventrikel valves: valves that allow blood to flow in only one direction, namely from the atria to the ventricles, and prevent blood flowing back from the ventricle into the atrium.

22. valve mitralis

23. aorta: a large artery originating from the left ventricle

24. Arterioles: small arterial branches

25. inferior vena cava: the blood vessels that carry blood back from the systemic circulation (from the whole body) into the right atrium via a large vein bottom

26. superior vena cava: the blood vessels that carry blood back from the systemic circulation (from the whole body) into the right atrium via a large vein top

27. Other names of lymph nodes
These glands function to produce leukocytes or white blood cells that protect against germs.

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