Friday, October 16, 2009

Fetal Development in the Uterus

According to the orphans (1990:155) on human holobastik cleavage occurs irregularly. Where the field and when the stages are not the same division and not simultaneously in various regions zygote. Initially the zygote divides into 2 cells, then place the cells 3 and 4 levels of the cell, continued levels of 5 cell, 6 cell, 7 cells, 8 cells, and continuously until balstomer formed consisting of 60-70 cells, a massive clump of called Morula.
Cleavage or segmentation occurs after cleavage. Zygote divides repeatedly to consist of scores of small cells called a blastomere. Cleavage that covers all parts of the bias, the bias is also only a small part of the zygote. This cleavage occurs in mitosis. Field direction taken by the cleavage of the zygote through continuous mitotic into many cells, called the field division. There are 4 kinds of cleavage of the meridian, vertical, and latitudinal equator.
Blastulasi and Nidasi
After Morula cells experiencing constant division will be formed cavity in the middle. This cavity increasingly large and filled with fluid. Embryo that has a cavity called a blastula, blastocoel called sockets, a process called blastulasi blastula formation.
Blastula formed division until this happens on the oviduct and lasted for 5 days. Next blastula will flow to the uterus. After entering the uterus, blastosis first floated in uteus lumen. Then, 6-7 days after fertilization embryos will hold the relationship with the wall of the uterus to develop into the next stage. Events relationship between embryo in the uterus called the endometrium of implantation or nidasi. This implantation is complete in 12 days after fertilization (Orphan, 1990: 136). Gastrulasi
According to Tenzer (2000:212) After the blastula stage is complete proceed to the gastrulation stage. Gastrula place on day 15. Gastrula stage is a stage or the most critical stage for the embryo. Gastrulation occurs at the dynamic development of embryos due to cell migration, changes in cell shape and organization of an embryo in the axis system. The original set of cells located far apart, it is located close enough to make stimulating interaction in the formation of a system organs. Gastrulation produces 3 layers of institutions in the next layer of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm adjacent to the middle on the outside.
In the process of gastrulation occurs in addition to continuous cell division and multiplication, there are various kinds of cell movements in the effort to regulate and develop in accordance with the shape and body composition of individuals of the species concerned.
Tubulasi is the growth that accompanied formation of gastrula or collectively, the pembumbungan. The regions forming tool or going to the third seed layers ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, arrange themselves so that a tube, hollow. Pembumbungan who did not experience the notochord, but massive. Accompany the process tubulasi local differentiation process occurs in three layers of each tube of seeds, which in the next growth will develop instruments (organ) form definitive. When tubulasi neural ectoderm in progress, the early differentiation also occurred in areas that pipe, the front of the body becomes encephalon (brain) and the back of the spinal cord of the neural tube (neural). Endoderm tube occurs at the early differentiation of the front line, middle and rear. On the tube mesoderm occurs early differentiation of skeletal muscle to grow, the skin dermis and other connective tissue, muscle, viscera, the framework and tools urogenitalia.
Organogenesis or embryo morphogenesis is a primitive form that evolved into a more definitive shape and appearance memmiliki specific within a species. Organogensisi the weekend begins and ends at the 3 end of the week to 8. With the end of the organogenesis external characteristic and major organ systems have formed, hereinafter called the fetus embryo (Amy Tenzer, et al, 2000)
In the period of growth or transition occurs between transformation and differentiation of parts, embryos from primitive forms to become the definitive form. In this period embryos will have a special form for a species. At the end of growth period, the smooth completion of definitive shape that is characteristic of an individual. In this period of embryo growth experienced resolution of gender, character (physical characteristics and psychological) and special face for each individual. Organogenesis in the tube-tube:
Tube epidermal
  1. Epidermal layer of skin, with a textured derivation (chemical composition) horn: scales, feathers, hooves, horns, horns, spurs.
  2. Skin glands: hair oil glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, glands lenders, tear glands.
  3. Lens of the eye, ear instruments, senses the smell and the sense of touch.
  4. Stomodeum grow up, with a derivation such as tooth enamel coating, salivary glands and the sense of taste.
  5. Proctodeum grow with rectal gland that produces odor.
  6. Tooth enamel.
Endoderm tube
  1. Epithelial layer of the entire digestive tract from the pharynx to the rectum.
  2. Digestive glands such as the liver, pancreas, and glands containing enzyme lenders in esophageal, gastric and intestium.
  3. Pulmonary epithelial layer or gill.
  4. Cloaca is the estuary of three channels: disposal (ureter), food (rectum), and venereal (genital ductus).
  5. Epithelial layer of the vagina, urethra, urinary and glandular vesika-gland.
Neural Tube (neural)
  1. The brain and spinal cord.
  2. Peripheral nervous brain and spine.
  3. Part sensory nerves, such as eyes, nose and skin.
  4. Chromatophore skin and organs that have pigment.
Tube Mesoderm
  1. Muscle: striated, smooth and cardiac.
  2. Mesenchyme differentiation that can be a variety of cells and tissues
  3. Gonads, channels, and gland-gland.
  4. Kidney and ureter.
  5. Layers of muscle and connective tissue (Tunica muscularis, adventitia Tunica, Tunica musclarismucosa and serous) the various channels in the body, such as digestion, sex, trachea, bronchi, and blood vessels.
  6. Layers of the body cavity and membranes various tools: plera, pericardium, peritoneum and mesentery.
  7. Connective tissue in tools such as liver, pancreas, clogged gland.
  8. Layer of dentin, cementum and dental periodontum, with pulpanya.
At week 5 embryos measuring 8 mm. At this time the brain develops very rapidly so that the head looks very big. At week 6 embryo measuring 13 mm. Head is still greater than that bodies have started straight, the fingers began to be formed. At week 7 embryo measuring 18 mm, fingers and toes began to be formed, elongated body and a straight start, the external genetalia can not be distinguished. After the completion of organogenesis stage at the end of week 8 will be referred to the embryo or fetus fetus size 30 mm.
Fetus Development Stage / Fetus
Stage of fetal development to begin in 3 to 10. In the last 6 months of human development is used to increase the size and mature organs formed in the first 3 months.
By the time the fetus entered the 3-month, 40 mm in length. Fetal organs already have such systems possessed by an adult. At this age can not be distinguished genital between males and females, and looks like a female and heart rate can already be heard.
In the last 6 months of human development is used to increase the size and mature organs formed in the first 3 months.
By the time the fetus entered the 3-month, 40 mm in length. Fetal organs already have such systems possessed by an adult. In this age of genital can not distinguish between males and females and looks like a female and heart rate can already be heard.
In the months to 4 measures 56 mm fetus. Head is still dominant over the body, the external genitalia appear different. At week 16 all vital organs are formed. Enlargement of the uterus can already be felt by the mother.
At 5 months into the fetal size 112 mm, while the end of the month to reach 5 size 160 mm fetus. Looks like a human face and hair began to appear throughout the body (lanugo). In the male testes began occupying the place where he will descend into the scrotum. Fetal movement can already be felt by the mother. The lungs are finished formed but not functioning.
In sizes 6 months to have more proportionate body, but seems thin, internal organs are in normal position.
In 7 fetuses appear to thin, wrinkled and red. Developed scrotum and testes began to descend into the scrotum, it was completed in 9 months. nervous system developed enough to regulate the movement of the fetus, if born 10% to survive.
At 8 months into the testis is the scrotum and the body begins to grown fat so it looks smooth and contain. Weight began to rise 70% if born to survive.
At 9 months, the fetus closed more fat (vernix caseosa). Began to appear on the nail tip of fingers and toes.
At month 10, the body of the fetus growing space is reduced and begin to disappear. Lung branching but not fully functional until birth. Parent supplying antibodies and the placenta begin to regression of blood vessels also begin plasenta regression.

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